As you know, for proper treatment to be administered to a particular disease, the diagnosis must be accurate. For swim bladder disorder in discus fish, some signs indicate the possibility of swim bladder disorder, such as floating nose down with tail up, floating to the top, or sinking to the base of the aquarium. If you have noticed any of these signs, it means that your discus fish swim bladder is malfunctioning.
It is very much treatable when you identify the cause, but before we go into the treatment, let’s define what swim bladder is.
Table of Contents
- What Is Swim Bladder Disorder?
- Swim Bladder Disorder – Symptoms
- Swim Bladder Disorder – Details And Cause
- Swim Bladder Disorder – Treatment Steps
- Swim Bladder Disorder – Future Prevention Tips
What Is Swim Bladder Disorder?
A swim bladder disorder is a malfunction of an organ in a fish which is responsible for balancing and stabilizing a fish in water, mostly it’s not a bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infection yet, it is simply a syndrome caused mainly when the fish gulp air with the food which can be cured in certain methods.
Now, having shone a light on what swim bladder is, it’s time to give a brief description of when, where, and why does this disorder occur?
When Does Swim Bladder Disorder Occur?
Mostly, swim bladder occurs when your discus fish is either overfed or took in too much air. But, in water with a cool temperature, the metabolism of the discus slows down, and this also leads to swimming bladder disorder.
Something else to watch out for is parasites and bacterial infections that can cause disorder in the swim bladder. Lastly, it can occur as a birth defect showing signs of disorder at the early stage of growth, but this rarely occurs.
Where Does Swim Bladder Disorder Occur?
The swim bladder is located in the dorsal part of a fish and spans across the length of the fish. The anterior swim bladder is close to the head, while the anterior swim bladder is close to the tail. Both the anterior and posterior portion of the swim bladder is connected via a small duct, which can change placement due to some divers causes.
Why Does Swim Bladder Disorder Occur?
Disorders occur in swim bladder because of over-inflation or under-inflation. This is possible due to overfeeding, too much air in-take, cool temperature, and infection, etc. While over-inflation leads to positive buoyancy disorder, under-inflation leads to negative buoyancy disorder.
Positive buoyancy disorder of the swim bladder causes fish to float on the surface or fish swimming vertically, and it affects the posterior region of the air bladder. This is the most common form of the disorder that occurs in the swim bladder. While negative buoyancy disorder is the opposite of the positive, this causes the fish to settle at the bottom of the aquarium.
Often, people get frustrated and start asking, ‘why is my discus fish swimming on its side?’ I believe you have the answer already, having read the last paragraph.
While for some others, having understood the problem with the fish through google or personal experience, they will ask ‘is swim bladder disease contagious?’ the answer to this question ‘NO.’ But a spread might likely occur because they are all in the same condition, this spread should not be mistaken for contagion.
Also, some will want to know the mortality rate; hence, they ask, ‘can fish die from swim bladder disease?’ And the answer is ‘YES,’ but with proper diagnosis and treatment, the mortality rate can be reduced. Knowing the cause is the key to the cure, so it is crucial to get the right diagnosis before the right medication can be administered.
Swim Bladder Disorder – Symptoms
- Fish floating to the top, upside-down.
- Fish sinking to the bottom of the aquarium.
- Fish swims with its tail above its head (this is normal for head standing fish species).
- Fish has a swollen stomach.
- Loss of appetite.
- Fish swimming on its side.
Swim Bladder Disorder – Details And Cause
The swim bladder disease, as it is fondly called, is not a disease but a syndrome, which is a secondary sign of disease processing. As stated above, the swim bladder disorder is not primarily caused by the swim bladder itself. So, this brings us to be negative and positive buoyancy disorder, which are preferred terms for the disorder.
Research on this topic has not been done in-depth, which has reduced many persons to source hard for information or make do with the poor prognosis from researchers. Experts are rare in this field, so the excuse for poor scientific research done on this subject.
In positive buoyancy disorder, the fish floats on the surface of the water with its skin exposed to air because of the over-inflation of the swim bladder. This exposure rubs the fish off its protective mucous barrier, and the skin is affected by infection and ulceration. The positive buoyancy occurs in the posterior chamber, and the exact cause of the over-inflation can only be revealed through proper diagnosis.
From research carried out, the causes of over-inflation may be trauma, parasitic infestation, polycystic kidney (in some fishes), and cancerous complications. You should also know that a slight shift of the swim bladder due to gas displacement, will trigger a positive buoyancy. Since the anterior region of the swim bladder is firmly attached to the spine, this displacement can only occur in the posterior part of the fish.
For positive buoyancy, gastrointestinal diseases are also a common cause. This will require a deeper diagnosis and treatment because the gastroenteritis or parasites responds differently to medications. Gastroenteritis can be triggered by fighting, change in diet, the stress of shipment, etc. The stomach of the fish does not have a diaphragm, and both the abdomen and chest are not separated. When the gastrointestinal tract is excessively filled with gas, it causes the fish to swim with its belly up. But, if other materials are discovered in the bowels, negative buoyancy may likely occur.
In negative buoyancy, the presence of fluid in the swim bladder causes the fish to sink to the bottom of the aquarium. The pneumatic air duct connects both the swim bladder and the esophagus, and it allows the passage of fluids. This fluid can upset the stability of the fish by displacing air in the swim bladder. While it maintains normal posture, neural stability is difficult to attain. Diagnosis is carried out through samples gotten by sticking needles into the swim bladder.
Swim Bladder Disorder – Causes
- Gulping too much air.
- Cooler temperature.
- Water quality.
- Water pH spike.
Swim Bladder Disorder – Treatment Steps
[STEP1] – Maintain the water quality and change the water partially every two to three days.
[STEP2] – Add Epsom salt to your aquarium (1 Tablespoon per 40 Gallons).
[STEP3] – Starve the affected Discus fish, in cases due to overfeeding so food can digest, for at least three days.
[STEP4] – Increase temperature to up 86+ degrees Fahrenheit to aid digestion.
[STEP5] – Reduce the water level and feed them frozen green peas (after warming them up) after three days.
Reduce Water Level so the discus fish with swim bladder can eat the fish food at the bottom of your tank.
Prepare and feed your discus with green peas like the below video, remember that this is applicable to all types of fishes including discus fish.
[STEP6] – Hand feeds the fish(es), in case if they re not eating, by catching the fish very gently and put a small portion of green peas in their mouth and leave them in the water.
[STEP7] – For cases due to infection, see a veterinary professional quickly before it worsens.
Swim Bladder Disorder – Future Prevention Tips
- Always soak food before feeding. This will avoid flaky foods on top of the water, and prevent fish from gulping air while eating. When you soak the food, it allows the food to sink into the water, and fish will not have to come to the surface to feed. Or you can get sinking feeds, to avoid the stress of soaking.
- Avoid overfeeding the fish. Feed fish with small amounts of food per day to avoid constipation; it only requires a small quantity of food to function properly.
- The aquarium should always be cleaned. Parasites and bacteria thrive in a dirty environment that infects the fish in the long run. Always test the pH, nitrite, and ammonia levels of the water or change the water constantly. You can introduce aquarium salt every now and then, to help combat diseases and boost the immune system of the fish.
- Keep the temperature warm. You should maintain a warm temperature at all times and keep it steady. Cooler temperature stresses fishes and slow digestion rate, and the temperature should be between 80-86 degrees Fahrenheit (30 to 33ºc).
- For tanks with a strong current, reduce the water flow.
Many persons enter into a frantic mood when they discover their discus fish is acting abnormally. With this article, you should fully comprehend and know the right steps to take to avoid the death of your discus fish due to swim bladder disorder. It is important not to self-medicate, except for the preventive measures highlighted. You should quickly see an expert for critical cases, proper diagnosis, and administration of drugs. Prevention is the greatest cure, so improve your preventive measures and swim bladder disorder will be distant from your aquarium.